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17 ноября 2021
"The age of rebellion" (1890-1918) from the book "The story of music" by Howard Goodall

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07 ноября 2021
Книга "Figlia della cenere", Ilaria Tuti

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18 октября 2021
"The age of Tragedy" (1850-1890) from the book "The story of music" by Howard Goodall

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10 октября 2021
Історія династії Габсбургів за книгою "The Habsburgs. The History of a Dynasty" by Benjamin Curtis

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21 августа 2021
"Ренесанс і Реформація" (1450 - 1670 рр.) за книгою Нормана Дейвіса "Європа. Історія"

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12 августа 2021
"The age of Elegance and Sentiment" (1750-1850) from the book "The story of music" by Howard Goodall

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18 июля 2021
Римські боги за книгою М.А. Куна "Легенди і міфи Стародавньої Греції та Стародавнього Риму"

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27 июля 2021
"The age of invention" (1650-1750) from the book "The story of music" by Howard Goodall

Good afternoon, Authors, Translators and Publishing companies!

Continuing to read the book “The story of music” by Howard Goodall, we will tell about the next chapter “The age of invention” (1650-1750).

Main aspects of the period:

1. the first half of this musical era was dominated by Italians, then it was spread to north of Germany, France and England;

 

2. this era is called Scientific revolution: 

- Pascal’s mechanical calculator (1642);

- Otto von Guericke’s machine-generation of electricity (1672);

- Leibniz’s calculating wheel (1673);

- Newton’s Principia (1687);

- Hadley’s octant (1730);

- Harrison’s marine chronometre (1736);

- first pendulum clock (1656), designed by Christian Huygens and built by clock master Salomon Coster;

 

3. in this clock- making epoch keeping time in music was subject of some debate:

- composer Thomas Mace outlined the possibility of measuring musical pulse against pendulum;

- Venetian theorist Ludovico Zaconni (1592) and German flautist Johann Joachim Quantz (1752) supported the idea of using human pulse as a guide for musical pulse;

- in 1690s Parisian composer Etienne Loulie’s and father of science of acoustics Joseph Sauveur developed chronometre for the semi-accurate setting of a musical pulse and sonometre, mechanical tuning device;

- in decade later John Shore invented echonometre, turning fork for calculating the duration of sounds;

 

4. Italians domination in music of that time is seen in descriptive language they left as legacy in international musical lexicon and inventions:

- new forms: concerto, sonata, oratorio, sinfonia, opera;

- definitions of speed: tempo, presto, allegro, andante, largo;

- techniques for playing: leggato, staccato, apreggio, rubato, pizzicato, piano, forte, creschendo, diminuendo;

- opera was spread in Italy from Venice to Naples and Rome and then on north Germany and France, first operas seen in French court were Italian;

- France developed a preference to a ballet, composer who was responsible for huge popularity of ballet in French court was Italian, Giovanni Battista Lulli; 

- dancing at French court was not the way of passing a pleasant time but giving prestige, power and glory to king, a ballet began from a self-contained instrumental introduction, an opening or overture, althrough it has French name, but in its musical form it was italian sinfonia (a mood-setting prelude), the idea of overture or sinfonia later was carried over from ballet to operas;

- after opera and ballet, in the next half of century, concerto was very popular, created by Italian violonist Arcangelo Corelli, the greatest aspect of Corelli’s revolution was his approach of manipulation of loud and soft passages in music, he divided musical band in two parts: large (concerto grosso) and small (concertino), switching between the large and small throughout the piece;

- Arcangelo Corelli also invented a musical shorthand, figured bass, intended as a time saving tool, its use began to change the way composers and keyboard players manipulated chords, changing the sound of harmony along the way;

- since placing one chord after another in a random succession (like in figured bass) is not very appealing in any form of music, composers needed to become much more aware of how to string chords together in a way neither haphazard nor ugly, the solution was harmonic progression (creation of chord sequences), composers even created chord sequences for one solo instrument playing a melody without any accompaniment;

- Ancangelo Corelli impacted a lot to Antonio Vivaldi, who composed five hundred concertos for a variety of musical instruments, first four concertos were called “Four Seasons”, where Vivaldi made musical effects to depict dogs, mosquitos, variety of birds, hunters and the hunted, winter and summer landscapes, rivers, storms, experimenting with various violin-playing techniques, Vivaldi’s Italian innovations found a fan in north German by composer Johann Sebastian Bach;

- in around 1700 a keyboard instrument piano was invented by Italian instrument builder Bartolomeo Cristofori, unique selling point of piano, distinguishing it from other instruments, was its ability to play soft and loud, in italian “piano” and “forte”, invention of piano had a huge effect, which is called Equal Temperament (on equal-tempted keyboard one can play in any or all twelve key families, switching from one to another, without worrying that piano will sound out of tune when moving from key to key), J. S. Bach was actively involved in the search of Equal Temperament;

 

5. George Frederick Handel was German composer for operas who can be truly called international:

- composed thirty nine operas for London stage between 1711 and 1741, cashing in on a Europe-wide hysteria for Italian opera among the nobility and rich merchant classes;

- presented more than twenty oratorios in London (“Esther”, “Messiah”, “Saul”, “Solomon”, “Israel in Egypt”).

 

For those, who are interested in music and history

 

Yours faithfully,

Website Administration

 

literary-tree.net

 

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