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18 липня 2021
Римські боги за книгою М.А. Куна "Легенди і міфи Стародавньої Греції та Стародавнього Риму"

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11 липня 2021
"The age of penitence" from the book "The story of music" by Howard Goodall

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04 липня 2021
Криза християнського світу за книгою "Європа. Історія" Нормана Дейвіса

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22 червня 2021
Книга "The Sunrise" by Victoria Hislop

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26 травня 2021
Середні віки за книгою "European literary history. An introduction" by Maarten de Pourcq and Sophie Levie

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11 травня 2021
Роман "I leoni di Sicilia", Stefania Auci

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29 квітня 2021
Книга "Magic city" by Jewell Parker Rhodes

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19 квітня 2021
Книга "European literary history. An introduction"

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28 червня 2021
Book "The Story of Music" by Howard Goodall

Good afternoon, Authors, Translators and Publishing companies!

Recently we have found out about the book «The Story of Music» by Howard Goodall.

Main aspects of the book:

  • published in 2013, in English language;
  • Howard Goodall is English composer of choral music, stage musicals, film and TV scores;
  • the book is a map of man’s musical journey from ancient time till present;
  • music from each time period mentioned in the book one could listen to on Spotify.

The first chapter is dedicated to «The Age of Discovery» (40 000 BC - AD 1 450):

  1. knowledge about ancient music and musical instruments:

 

  • cave paintings (Chauvet paintings in France, dated 32 000 BC and located at the point of great resonance in cave, singing is a form of sonar to provide location in the labyrinth of cave) and flutes in caves (flute from bear bone in Slovenian cave, dated 41 000 BC, flute from mammoth ivory and bird bones in the region of southern Germany, dated 42 000 – 43 000 BC);
  • art by Ancient Egyptians (3 100 - 670 BC), playing music was associated with power, religious rituals, state ceremony, dancing, love, death;
  • decoration of tombs in the ancient city of Thebes by iconography of music-making  (ancient Egypt);
  • there are no musical notation, music as improvisation for ancient world (ancient Egyptians, Greeks);
  • clay tablets with lists of musical instruments and instructions on how to play them (list found in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), includes instruction of playing lyre, 2 600 BC, old Babylonian list, dated 2 000 - 1 700 BC, includes instruction of playing lute);
  • arheological success in unearthing ancient instruments (lyre, harp, horn).

 

  1. Ancient Greeks and music:

 

  • Greeks believed music to be both a science and an art and also that studying music would produce more tolerant and nobler human being (music is one of the compulsory subject in systematic education);
  • Greeks treated music as an essential part of all their significant rituals (sacred hymns and offerings, feasts and festive assemblies of cities, wars and marches), also early Olympic games were religious and included some music-making, later there was tradition of singing competition, for which festivals were organized with participants from all over Greek-dominated eastern Mediterranean;
  • Greek dramas were all accompanied by music and choral signing, declaiming or chanting, number of Greek dramas are about music (for example, satirical play «The Frogs» by Aristophane of 405 BC).

 

  1. Romans and music:

 

  • they had no compulsion to write their music down at first;
  • musical instrument organ accompanied gladiatorial contests and other public entertainment;
  • when Christianity became legal in Roman empire, Christian chant (religious singing) was spread (AD 313);
  • church in Rome set up its School of Singing in AD 350 and there was plenty of musical activity in Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine);
  • at the burial site of the early seventh-century Anglo-Saxon king Redwald in Suffolk along with all manner of cultural treasuries, clothes, jewellery, weapons are the remains of large six-stringed lyre, a form of hand-help harp;
  • before a universal notation system emerged, all of the chant (plainsong) that monks and nuns sang, was memorised;
  • plainsong developed gradually all over Christian Europe according to local tastes and traditions, but all of them were just tune without accompaniment and in one voice;
  • later in around AD 800 medieval church musicians began to use technique of running two notes in parallel, called organum (to their ears it sounded like organ); organum became very popular across Europe;
  • after organum technique the drone style was invented (organum where one voice stood still instead), in nineth century in Byzantine there were used also mixing of the parallel organum and the drone style;
  • in around AD 1 000 Italian monk Guido of Arezzo invented system of musical notation, still in use today (you could write down a tune and someone else could sing it back to you, never having seen it before);
  • notation revolution changed the way how music was created, composers could now place music, like words, on page and indicate their names as composers (one of the first named composers was German woman, Hildegard of Bingen (born in 1098), instead of handing on the tried and tested chants, she made up her own chant tunes, which was unexpected for that times);
  • musical radical Perotin, who worked in Notre-Dame (Paris), proposed to use chords (three or four notes simultaneously);
  • the twelfth century in France was the era of troubadours, skilled poet-singer-songwriters who inspired a lively exchange of ideas and tunes between countries in Europe and also between contemporary church music and its secular counterpart; at this time Perotin introduced rhythm, learnt from troubadours, who had in turn picked it up from Arabic Muslim Spain; rhythm became visible in notation;
  • Guillaume de Machaut, a composer-poet, working in northern France in mid-fourteenth century created isorhythm (each of four singing parts had its own duration value that started and ended at a different point);
  • in the early 1 400s English composer-astrologer John Dunstaple invented new chord combination: major (sounds happy) and minor (sounds sad) chords;
  • the most celebrated composer of fifteenth century was Guillame Dufay, composed for noblemen and the Church, his music sounds familiar to us.

 

For those, who are interested in the history and music

 

Yours faithfully,

Website Administration

 

literary-tree.net

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