18 липня 2021
Римські боги за книгою М.А. Куна "Легенди і міфи Стародавньої Греції та Стародавнього Риму"

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04 липня 2021
Криза християнського світу за книгою "Європа. Історія" Нормана Дейвіса

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28 червня 2021
Book "The Story of Music" by Howard Goodall

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22 червня 2021
Книга "The Sunrise" by Victoria Hislop

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26 травня 2021
Середні віки за книгою "European literary history. An introduction" by Maarten de Pourcq and Sophie Levie

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11 травня 2021
Роман "I leoni di Sicilia", Stefania Auci

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29 квітня 2021
Книга "Magic city" by Jewell Parker Rhodes

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19 квітня 2021
Книга "European literary history. An introduction"

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11 липня 2021
"The age of penitence" from the book "The story of music" by Howard Goodall

Good afternoon, Authors, Translators and Publishing companies!

Today we will tell about the chapter “The age of penitence” (1450 – 1650) from the book “The story of music” by Howard Goodall.

Main moments of the chapter:

1. in the year 1450 there was invention of printing press by J. Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany, which impacted the following:


- books were appearing everywhere;


- it was motivation for greater personal analysis and understanding of Bible;


- appearance of general artistic, literary and scientific movement, called Renaissance (the renewed interest in antiquity, especially the culture of Ancient Greece);


2. in 1453  while the fall of Constantinople, conquested by Ottoman, there was arrival to Italy from Constantinople:


- Cristian Greek scholars with ancient Greek manuscripts;


- skilled and celebrated Flemish composers;


3. in 1498 composer from Burgundy (Franco-Belgian border) Josquin des Prez, while setting to the music the prayer “Infelix ego” of Girolamo Savonarola (Dominican friar), began to use musical keys  (grouping notes into families, finding that certain association of notes, if used as the basis for melodies, evoke different moods);


4. popular themes in songs:


- in secular songs: unhappy love, courting (through nobility and ordinary young people), «Greensleeves» by William Cornysh is a famous song from that time;


- in church music: Christmas, Christmas carol, inspired or by an earlier Italian tradition of sacred songs, welcoming the Christ-child’s nativity, or by dancing song from old Greek and Latin tradition, or by pagan celebration of winter solstice, or by advent plainsong (the first printed collection of Christmas carols was published in 1521 by Wynkyn de Worde);


5. popular musical instruments:


- stringed and bowed instruments: violin, guitar (mandolin), cello (they made solo musical performances possible and enjoyable, majority of professional musicians were men, huge number of amateur musicians were women). 

The first violin made according to the design we recognise today is generally agreed to be constructed by Andrea Amati of Cremona for Charles IX, King of France, in 1564.

Modern violin was intended as a member of a group, not primarily as a solo instrument.


- keyboard instruments: harpsichord (the oldest surviving example of the instrument dates from 1521 and is Italian), organ (the world’s oldest playable organ, in basilica of Valere in the canton of Valais in Switzerland, was built some time between 1390 and 1435);


6. in the first half of the sixteenth century ideas of Marten Luther and protestant and counter-reformation reforms brought simplification of church music so that the words could be heard more clearly and congregations in churches should be able to join in hymn-signing;


7. in the second half of the sixteenth century a Franco-Flemish composer Jacques Arcadelt gifted Europe new types of songs: madrigals (published in Venice in 1539) and chanson collections (published in Paris in 1560s);


8. in 1597 English composer John Downland published «First Book of Songs», first outstanding examples of the kind of solo songs;


9. at the beginning of seventeenth century Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi gave birth to the new style of singing – opera (his famous operas: «Orfeo», «Arianna», «The Coronation of Poppea).


For those, who are interested in history and music


Yours faithfully,

Website Administration



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